- ANDERNACH, city in the Rhineland, district of Coblenz, Germany. A Jewish community lived there toward the end of the 12th century under the protection of the archbishop of Cologne, who acquired Andernach in 1167. The ritual bathhouse, built in the 14th century, still exists. In 1287 the Jews were expelled, and the populace destroyed and pillaged the houses in the Judengasse; the archbishop, however, compelled the burghers to restore all property to the Jews and to expel the rioters from the city. The Jews again appear to have been driven out of Andernach in the first half of the 15th century, but evidently remained close to its walls. They were permitted to take refuge inside the city during emergencies, especially during the wars of 1573–1655. The community increased from a single Jewish resident in 1860 to about 140 by 1925. In 1939, only 45 Jews remained in Andernach. At least 11 died in the Holocaust. No Jews have lived there since World War II. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Germ Jud, 1 (1965), 11 ff.; 2 (1968), 14–17; Salfeld, Martyrol, 68, 90, 841. (Zvi Avneri)
Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.